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Maven is a build automation tool that is used to manage the lifecycle of software projects. It uses a plugin-based architecture, which allows for extensibility and customization.
We’ll go through how to specify a particular Java version in Maven setup in this short tutorial. You may tell Maven the Java compiler version to use in a few different ways. Let’s have a look at the most popular choices.
Version 1 of the compiler
If you don’t specify a compiler version explicitly in Maven, Maven will use the Java 1.5 compiler version.
Before we continue, let’s review how to compile java code using JDK with a particular compiler version.
2. Recognize how to compile Java code to a particular version
The -source, -target, and -bootclasspath parameters in the javac tool allow you to compile Java code to a particular version.
$ javac -source release> -help Provide source compatibility with the release -target release> that has been provided. -bootclasspath path> generates class files for a particular VM version. Specify a different location for the bootstrap class files.
The -source option checks if the source code is compatible with the Java release version provided.
The -target option converts the source code to the version you provide.
Consider the following scenario: You have Java 8 installed on your computer, but you wish to compile source code in Java 1.6.
MyTest.java -source 1.6 -target 1.6 -bootclasspath ” percent JAVA HOME/jre/lib/rt.jar” $ javac MyTest.java -source 1.6 -target 1.6 -bootclasspath ” percent JAVA HOME/jre/lib/rt.jar”
If the source code is compatible with Java 1.6, the above command compiles the source code correctly. The source code does not compile properly to the target version if -bootclasspath is not specified.
2.2. The following procedure is effective till Java 8 is released. In Java 9, a new option -release was added to facilitate cross-compiler versions. Three of these options, -source, -target, and -bootclasspath, are replaced by the -release option.
To compile source code to a particular version, use the single option -release in Java 9 and later versions.
For instance, if you have JDK 11 installed on your computer, you may build against Java 8.
—release 8 javac MyTest.java
Let’s have a look at the maven configuration choices for setting the Java version.
3. Versions of Java before to 8
If you’re using a Java version higher than 1.5, you’ll need to specify it either via Maven project settings or using the Maven Compiler plugin.
3.1. Use properties to set the version.
The maven.compiler.source and maven.compiler.target attributes may be used to specify the Java compiler version. Only 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 5, 1.6, 6, 1.7, 7, 1.8, or 8 are acceptable sources and targets.
maven.compiler.source maven.compiler.source maven.compiler.source maven.compiler.source ma 1.8/maven.compiler.source>/maven.compiler.target>/maven.compiler.target>/maven.compiler.target>/maven.compiler.target>/m 1.8</maven.compiler.target> </properties>
3.2. Use the plugin to set the version.
We may also set the Java version using Compiler Plugin’s source and target configuration parameters. If the source and destination values aren’t specified, the plugin defaults to version 1.6.
groupId> plugin> plugin> plugin> plugin> plugin> org.apache.maven.plugins/groupId> org.apache.maven.plugins/artifactId> /artifactId> maven-compiler-plugin/version> /version> 3.8.1/configuration> /source> 1.8/source>      & 1.8/target/configuration/plugin/plugin/plugin/plugin/plugin/plugin/plugin/plugin/plugin/p
Versions of Java 9 and above
Source code for Java 9 and higher versions must be compatible with Java 1.5 or above. This indicates that javac -source does not support versions lower than 1.5. 1.6, 6, 1.7, 7, 1.8, or 8, 9, 10, 11, and 13 are valid Java versions to mention.
As previously mentioned, a new option -release replaces three of these -source, -target, and -bootclasspath in Java 9 to enable cross-compiler versions.
4.1. Use properties to set the version
The maven.compiler.release property may be used to provide the Java compiler version. Make sure your plugin is version 3.6 or above.
maven.compiler.release maven.compiler.release maven.compiler.release maven.compiler.release ma /properties>/maven.compiler.release>/maven.compiler.release>/maven.compiler.release>/maven.compiler
4.2. Use the plugin to set the version.
By setting the release option of the Plugin, we may specify the Java version.
groupId> plugin> plugin> plugin> plugin> plugin> org.apache.maven.plugins/groupId> org.apache.maven.plugins/artifactId> /artifactId> maven-compiler-plugin/version> 3.8.1/version> /configuration> /release>8/release> /configuration> /plugin> 3.8.1/version> /configuration>
Additional compiler parameters (section 4.3)
To make newer versions of Java function, such as preview features, we may need to provide extra parameters to the compiler. The compilerArgs option allows us to provide extra arguments to the compiler.
groupId> plugin> plugin> plugin> plugin> plugin> org.apache.maven.plugins/groupId> org.apache.maven.plugins/artifactId> /artifactId> maven-compiler-plugin/version> /version> 3.8.1/version> /configuration> /release>15/release> /compilerArgs> /compilerArgs> /compilerArgs> /compilerArgs> /compilerArgs> /configuration> /plugin> —enable-preview/compilerArgs> —enable-preview/compilerArgs> —enable-preview/compilerArgs> —enable-preview/compilerArg
5. Final thoughts
We learnt how to specify a particular Java version in Maven setup in this short tutorial.
You may also be interested in these Maven guides:
- Maven should be installed on Windows.
- Setup Maven on a Mac
- On Ubuntu, install Maven.
- Eclipse may be used to import a Maven project.
- Maven doesn’t run tests.
- Maven executes tests
- Run the Java main class using Maven.
- Document Maven
- java -bootclasspath java -bootclasspath java -bootclasspath
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